An extension of the Jar task with special treatment for files that should end up in an Enterprise Application archive.

(The Ear task is a shortcut for specifying the particular layout of a EAR file. The same thing can be accomplished by using the prefix and fullpath attributes of zipfilesets in a Zip or Jar task.)

The extended zipfileset element from the zip task (with attributes prefix, fullpath, and src) is available in the Ear task.

Please note that the zip format allows multiple files of the same fully-qualified name to exist within a single archive. This has been documented as causing various problems for unsuspecting users. If you wish to avoid this behavior you must set the duplicate attribute to a value other than its default, "add".


Attribute Description Required
destfile the EAR file to create. Yes
appxml The deployment descriptor to use (META-INF/application.xml). Yes, unless update is set to true
basedir the directory from which to jar the files. No
compress Not only store data but also compress them, defaults to true. Unless you set the keepcompression attribute to false, this will apply to the entire archive, not only the files you've added while updating. No
keepcompression For entries coming from existing archives (like nested zipfilesets or while updating the archive), keep the compression as it has been originally instead of using the compress attribute. Defaults false. Since Apache Ant 1.6 No
encoding The character encoding to use for filenames inside the archive. Defaults to UTF8. It is not recommended to change this value as the created archive will most likely be unreadable for Java otherwise.
See also the discussion in the zip task page
filesonly Store only file entries, defaults to false No
includes comma- or space-separated list of patterns of files that must be included. All files are included when omitted. No
includesfile the name of a file. Each line of this file is taken to be an include pattern No
excludes comma- or space-separated list of patterns of files that must be excluded. No files (except default excludes) are excluded when omitted. No
excludesfile the name of a file. Each line of this file is taken to be an exclude pattern No
defaultexcludes indicates whether default excludes should be used or not ("yes"/"no"). Default excludes are used when omitted. No
manifest the manifest file to use. No
filesetmanifest behavior when a Manifest is found in a zipfileset or zipgroupfileset file is found. Valid values are "skip", "merge", and "mergewithoutmain". "merge" will merge all of the manifests together, and merge this into any other specified manifests. "mergewithoutmain" merges everything but the Main section of the manifests. Default value is "skip". No
whenmanifestonly behavior when no files match. Valid values are "fail", "skip", and "create". Default is "create". No
manifestencoding The encoding used to read the JAR manifest, when a manifest file is specified. No, defaults to the platform encoding.
index whether to create an index list to speed up classloading. This is a JDK 1.3+ specific feature. Unless you specify additional jars with nested indexjars elements, only the contents of this jar will be included in the index. Defaults to false. No
indexMetaInf whether to include META-INF and its children in the index. Doesn't have any effect if index is false.
Oracle's jar implementation used to skip the META-INF directory and Ant followed that example. The behavior has been changed with Java 5. In order to avoid problems with Ant generated jars on Java 1.4 or earlier Ant will not include META-INF unless explicitly asked to.
Ant 1.8.0 - Defaults to false.
update indicates whether to update or overwrite the destination file if it already exists. Default is "false". No
duplicate behavior when a duplicate file is found. Valid values are "add", "preserve", and "fail". The default value is "add". No
roundup Whether the file modification times will be rounded up to the next even number of seconds.
Zip archives store file modification times with a granularity of two seconds, so the times will either be rounded up or down. If you round down, the archive will always seem out-of-date when you rerun the task, so the default is to round up. Rounding up may lead to a different type of problems like JSPs inside a web archive that seem to be slightly more recent than precompiled pages, rendering precompilation useless.
Defaults to true. Since Ant 1.6.2
level Non-default level at which file compression should be performed. Valid values range from 0 (no compression/fastest) to 9 (maximum compression/slowest). Since Ant 1.7 No
preserve0permissions when updating an archive or adding entries from a different archive Ant will assume that a Unix permissions value of 0 (nobody is allowed to do anything to the file/directory) means that the permissions haven't been stored at all rather than real permissions and will instead apply its own default values.
Set this attribute to true if you really want to preserve the original permission field.since Ant 1.8.0
No, default is false
useLanguageEncodingFlag Whether to set the language encoding flag if the encoding is UTF-8. This setting doesn't have any effect if the encoding is not UTF-8. Since Ant 1.8.0.
See also the discussion in the zip task page
No, default is true
createUnicodeExtraFields Whether to create unicode extra fields to store the file names a second time inside the entry's metadata.
Possible values are "never", "always" and "not-encodeable" which will only add Unicode extra fields if the file name cannot be encoded using the specified encoding. Since Ant 1.8.0.
See also the discussion in the zip task page
No, default is "never"
fallbacktoUTF8 Whether to use UTF-8 and the language encoding flag instead of the specified encoding if a file name cannot be encoded using the specified encoding. Since Ant 1.8.0.
See also the discussion in the zip task page
No, default is false
mergeClassPathAttributes Whether to merge the Class-Path attributes found in different manifests (if merging manifests). If false, only the attribute of the last merged manifest will be preserved. Since Ant 1.8.0.
unless you also set flattenAttributes to true this may result in manifests containing multiple Class-Path attributes which violates the manifest specification.
No, default is false
flattenAttributes Whether to merge attributes occuring more than once in a section (this can only happen for the Class-Path attribute) into a single attribute. Since Ant 1.8.0. No, default is false
zip64Mode When to use Zip64 extensions for entries. The possible values are "never", "always" and "as-needed". Since Ant 1.9.1.
See also the discussion in the zip task page
No, default is "never"

Nested elements


The nested metainf element specifies a FileSet. All files included in this fileset will end up in the META-INF directory of the ear file. If this fileset includes a file named MANIFEST.MF, the file is ignored and you will get a warning.

manifest, indexjars, service

These are inherited from <jar>


    <ear destfile="${build.dir}/myapp.ear" appxml="${src.dir}/metadata/application.xml">
      <fileset dir="${build.dir}" includes="*.jar,*.war"/>